Sun exposure: When your skin is repeatedly exposed to UV light, sun damage occurs. Brown spots and uneven skin tone develop as a result of too much melanin being produced to help protect your skin from UV light.
Pollution: Particles and gasses from traffic-related air pollution are able to penetrate the skin and lead to formation of brown spots, particularly on the face.
Hormones: Melasma is hormone-related hyperpigmentation caused by increased hormone stimulation. It’s most commonly experienced by women who are pregnant (which is why it’s also known as the “mask of pregnancy”) or taking contraceptives, but can also be a reaction to cosmetics or medications.
Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation: This is a darkening of the skin as a result of scarring, which can be caused by acne lesions or skin injury.
Apply SPF daily. Unprotected sun exposure is the number one culprit behind hyperpigmentation. Applying a sunscreen or moisturiser with a Broad Spectrum SPF of at least 30 is the easiest way to help prevent new spots. Tip: Look for Oleosome technology, which increases SPF performance.
Exfoliate. Treat existing hyperpigmentation by first sloughing off dead, dulling skin cells at the surface. This clears the path for the ingredients in your serums and moisturisers to better penetrate the skin. Tip: Look for a gentle, micro-fine exfoliant you can use daily.
Use the right ingredients. Seek out products that contain Alpha Arbutin which works by producing an enzyme that inhibits melanin production. intensely brightening skin, as well as reducing the appearance of dark spots and hyper-pigmentation.
Be patient. There's no quick fix for an uneven skin tone. Traditionally it takes at least 30 days of vigilant skin care treatment before you see any progress. Successful, 75 percent skin brightening can take up to four months, so don't give up!
The skin under our eyes is very thin and delicate, therefore it can get damaged and wrinkled over time more so than the rest of our face. Also, with aging the tissues around your eyes, including some of the muscles supporting your eyelids, weaken. Normal fat that helps support the eyes can then move into the lower eyelids, causing the lids to appear puffy. Fluid also may accumulate in the space below your eyes, adding to the swelling.
Use a cool compress
Low temperatures enhance blood circulation, encouraging toxins drainage and boosting oxygen and nutrients to the eye area. As a result, metabolism of skin cell regrowth is enhanced, revealing a tightened, brightened and smoothed appearance.
When you don't get enough sleep, the body produces excess cortisol, a hormone that breaks down skin cells. Get enough rest, and you'll produce more HGH (human growth hormone), which helps skin remain thick, more "elastic," and less likely to wrinkle.
Invest in a good eye cream
Using an eye cream rich in Hyaluronic Acid will help to stimulate collagen and keep the skin plumped.